Consider the following situations:
The National Semiconductor SC/MP has pointers which, when you keep incrementing them, will roll from 0x0FFF to 0x0000 because the increment circuit does not propagate the carry past the lower nybble of the higher byte. So if, for example, I want to do
while(*ptr++)to traverse a null-terminated string, then I might wind up with
ptrpointing outside of the array.
On the PDP-10, because a machine word is longer than an address1, a pointer may have tags and other data in the upper half of the word containing the address. In this situation, if incrementing a pointer causes an overflow, that other data might get altered. The same goes for very early Macintoshes, before the ROMs were 32-bit clean.
So my question is about whether the C standard says what incrementing a pointer really means. As far as I can tell, the C standard assumes that it should work in bit-wise the same manner as incrementing an integer. But that doesn't always hold, as we have seen.
Can a standards-conforming C compiler emit a simple
adda a0, 12 to increment a pointer, without checking that the presence or lack of carry propagation will not lead to weirdness?
1: On the PDP-10, an address is 18 bits wide, but a machine word is 36 bits wide.
2: Add one to an address. That's 68000 assembler.
Behavior of pointer arithmetic is specified by the C standard only as long as the result points to a valid object or just past a valid object. More than that, the standard does not say what the bits of a pointer look like; an implementation may arrange them to suit its own purposes.
So, no, the standard does not say what happens when a pointer is incremented so far that the address rolls over.
while loop you refer to only proceeds one element past the end of the array, it is safe in C. (Per the standard, if
ptr has been incremented to one element beyond the end of the array, and
x points to any element in the array, including the first, then
x < ptr must be true. So, if
ptr has rolled over internally, the C implementation is responsible for ensuring the comparison still works.)
while loop may increment
ptr more than one element beyond the end of the array, the C standard does not define the behavior.