Calculate sum and length of a list simultaneously with foldl and a tuple

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I've been struggling with foldr for a while now. i want to convert a list of ints to a single tuple that contains the sum of list and number of ints. for example [1,2,3,4] -> (10,4) the function i have below iterates through the list fine but only outputs the last element as the x val and 1 as the y val.

toTuple xs = let tuple = foldl (/a b -> ((sum1 + b),(len1 + 1))) (0.0,0.0) xs                in tuple                   where sum1 = 0                      len1 = 0   

i originally had sum1 and len1 as functions that take in an single int as an input but that didnt' work either so i changed them to variables initailized to 0. however it seems like its setting sum and len to 0 at every element in the list. any suggestions to modify this? thanks!

It looks like you haven’t built an intuition for folds yet. You can think of a fold like foldl combine start input as starting with some start value, then combining that value with each element of the input using the combine function. The function accepts the current “state” and the next element of the list, and returns the updated state. So you are very close to a working solution:

toTuple xs = foldl (/ (sum, len) x -> (sum + x, len + 1)) (0, 0) xs 

Stepping through an example input like [1, 2, 3, 4], the state (sum, len), usually called an “accumulator”, takes on the following values each time the folding function is called:

(0, 0) (0+1, 0+1)             = (1, 1) (0+1+2, 0+1+1)         = (3, 2) (0+1+2+3, 0+1+1+1)     = (6, 3) (0+1+2+3+4, 0+1+1+1+1) = (10, 4) 

At no point are we modifying any variables, just calculating the next value of the sum and the length by combining the current partial sum & length with each element of the list. For a left fold (foldl) that’s done from left to right; for a right fold (foldr) it’s from right to left, so the order of the parameters ((sum, len) and x) is reversed:

toTuple xs = foldr (/ x (sum, len) -> (sum + x, len + 1)) (0, 0) xs 

However, for right folds, I find it easier to think of them as replacing all the : in a list with a function and replacing the [] with a value:

foldr f z [1, 2, 3, 4] foldr f z (1 : (2 : (3 : (4 : [])))) 1 `f` (2 `f` (3 `f` (4 `f` z))) 


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